Sample & Info

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wedding album

printing design



The Nikon D3100 Digital SLR Camera is an affordable, compact, and lightweight photographic power-house. It features the all-purpose 18-55mm VR lens, a high-resolution 14.2 MP CMOS sensor along with a  feature set that's comprehensive yet easy to navigate - the intuitive onboard learn-as-you grow guide mode allows the photographer to understand what the 3100 can do quickly and easily. Capture beautiful pictures and amazing Full HD 1080p movies with sound and full-time autofocus. Easily capture the action other cameras miss with a fast start up time, split-second shutter release, 3 frames per second shooting and 11-point autofocus. Capture pictures and make movies in near darkness with an ISO range of 100 to 3200 (expandable to 12800-Hi2).
EXPEED 2, Nikon's new image processing engine, assures breathtakingly rich image quality, managing color, contrast, exposure and noise. One-touch Live View and movie recording lets you see the action on the 3" monitor and the Scene Recognition System automatically chooses the ideal settings. You can also select from 6 Automatic Exposure Scene Modes- Portrait, Landscape, Child, Sports, Close-up or Night Portrait for stunning results in otherwise challenging conditions.
Active D-Lighting restores picture-enhancing detail in shadows and highlights. A built-in pop-up flash is ready for those times when there just isn't enough light and in-camera image editing allows creative freedom and effects, without the need for a computer.

The Nikon D90 is a 12.3-megapixel DX-format camera. Fusing 12.3-megapixel image quality inherited from the award-winning D300 with ground breaking features, the D90's breathtaking, low-noise image quality is further advanced with EXPEED image processing.
Split-second shutter response and continuous shooting at up to 4.5 frames-per-second provide the power to capture fast action and precise moments perfectly, while Nikon's exclusive Scene Recognition System contributes to faster 11-area autofocus performance, finer white balance detection and more.
The D90 delivers the control passionate photographers demand, utilizing comprehensive exposure functions and the intelligence of 3D Color Matrix Metering II. Stunning results come to life on a 3-inch 920,000-dot color LCD monitor, providing accurate image review, Live View composition and brilliant playback of the D90's cinematic-quality 24-fps HD D-Movie mode.
  • 12.3-megapixel DX-format CMOS imaging sensor: Coupled with Nikon's EXPEED image processing technologies and NIKKOR optics, breathtaking image fidelity is assured
  • Continuous shooting as fast as 4.5 frames-per-second: Combined with fast 0.15ms power-up and split-second 65ms shooting lag, dramatic action and decisive moments are captured easily
  • D-Movie Mode-Cinematic 24fps HD with sound: Record cinematic-quality movie clips at up to 720p HD (1280 x 720 pixels) in Motion JPEG format, enhanced by NIKKOR interchangeable lens quality and versatility
  • Low noise ISO sensitivity from 200 to 3200: High signal-to-noise components and design deliver exceptional performance, even at high ISO setting
  • 3-inch super-density 920,000-dot color LCD monitor: High resolution, 170-degree wide-angle viewing guarantees confident image review and movie playback
  • Built-in image sensor cleaning: Effective 4-frequency, ultrasonic sensor cleaning frees image degrading dust particles from the sensor's optical low pass filter
  • 11-point AF system with Face Priority: Consistently fast and accurate autofocus, reinforced by the Nikon Scene Recognition System, delivers razor sharpness in a wide variety of conditions
  • One-button Live View: Easy to use Live View activates access to 3 contrast detection focus modes including Face Priority AF
  • Nikon 3D Color Matrix Metering II with Scene Recognition System: Nikon's renowned 420-pixel RGB 3D Color Matrix Metering II, teamed with the exclusive Scene Recognition System, evaluates images, referencing an on-board database of over 30,000 photographic scenes, for unmatched exposure accuracy
  • Comprehensive exposure control: Five advanced scene modes plus Program Auto, Shutter Priority, Aperture Priority and Manual
  • Auto Active D-Lighting: Selectable and Automatic, Active D-Lighting optimizes details within shadows and highlights, taming high-contrast situations in real time
  • Durable, high precision shutter: Testing to over 100,000 cycles assures shutter life and accuracy
  • In-Camera Image Editing: Creative freedom stems from exclusive in-camera image editing, featuring Fisheye effect, Straighten and Distortion Control as well as D-Lighting, Red-eye Reduction, Image Overlay, Monochrome and more
  • GPS geo-tagging: GP-1 GPS unit (optional) provides automatic real-time geo-tagging


In photo printing it is a term used to describe the durability of printed digital photos and how well they stand up to exposure to light. Sunlight and other artificial lighting can cause a reaction on ink pigments and can cause the color to fade or change over time with exposure. In printing, when an ink is called lightfast, it means the manufacturer states it has a strong light-fade resistance.

Compare with gasfastness, the durability of a print when exposed to elements other than light.

color temperature

Color temperature refers to a characterization of the spectral properties of a light source and is commonly used during the production phase in the film and photography industries. Low color temperature is the warmer, more yellow to red light while high color temperature is the colder, more blue light. Daylight, for example, has a lower color temperature near dawn and a higher one during the day. The standard unit of measurement for color temperature is Kelvin (K). Some typical color values include the following;

    * candles or oil lamps: 1000K
    * household light bulbs: 2500K
    * bright sunshine on a clear day: 6000K
    * very overcast sky: 10,000K

A lens filter commonly used in photography and digital photography that polarizes the light as it enters the camera lens. Polarizers can be used to help darken a bright sky or remove reflections and glare from objects. Also called a polarizing filter.

white balance 

Abbreviated as WB, white balance is a function of a digital camera used to compensate for different colors of light being emitted by different light sources. In digital photography the term is generally used to describe a function of a digital camera that allows you to calibrate the device to correctly display the color white. Once this calibration has been done, the camera should then display other colors correctly as well.


In photography and digital photography the lens is the part of the digital camera or video recorder that concentrates light and focuses the image. The lens itself is a single piece of glass (or other transparent materials) with one or more curved surfaces. Cameras usually contain a combination of lenses that receive light rays from an object and form an image on the focal plane.

chromatic aberration
In digital photography chromatic aberration refers to a defect in some optical lens systems that adds false color to images. These colors usually take the form of a light purple halo around the observed object. Also called purple fringing.

In digital photography, lux is the unit of measurement for light intensity. One lux is equivalent to the light level of a single candle light. The symbol for Lux is lx.

chroma noise
In digital photography and digital video, chroma noise are fluctuations in color and luminance. Chroma noise is unnatural in appearance in the image or video. Noise reduction software can be used reduce both chroma noise.

In traditional photography, overexposure is a term used to describe the process of exposing film to too much light, which results in the photograph being too bright. In digital photography, where there is no film, overexposure refers to a white-looking or washed-out image (overexposed image). This generally happens when a digital photo or video was shot with too much light on the subject. If you're shooting with the wrong camera settings, the result can also be overexposed images.

shutter speed
In photography and digital photography the shutter speed is the unit of measurement which determines how long shutter remains open as the picture is taken. The slower the shutter speed, the longer the exposure time. The shutter speed and aperture together control the total amount of light reaching the sensor. Shutter speeds are expressed in seconds or fractions of a second. For example 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000, 1/4000, 1/8000. Each speed increment halves the amount of light.

A device that controls the amount of light admitted through an opening. In photography and digital photography, aperture is the unit of measurement that defines the size of the opening in the lens that can be adjusted to control the amount of light reaching the film or digital sensor. The size of the aperture is measured
in F-stop.

image de-skew
The process of straightening an image that has been scanned or photographed crookedly — that is an image that is slanting too far in one direction, or one that is misaligned. This process is done in the post-production stage using graphics software. Also called deskew.

stock photo
Stock photos (stock photography) are professional photographs of common places, landmarks, nature, events or people that are bought and sold on a royalty-free basis and can be used and reused for commercial design purposes. The photographer (or stock photography distributor) has ownership to the images, and the commercial designer has some limited usage of the photo (which is set out in the Terms of Service by the company you purchase the stock photos from). Some conditions of use may include things such as use of the images is licensed, not sold or in case of a stock photo being used in a magazine there may be a maximum number of copies of the image allowed to be printed under the agreement. Terms of  Service policies will differ between stock photography distributors.

Stock photography is a cost-effective method for designers to obtain professional photos and images without the costs of hiring a photographer directly. Stock photos and stock photography refer to the images purchased under this distribution method and may be photos, computer generated graphics, clip-art, vectors, and other form of imagery. Today stock photos can be purchased through a subscription and downloaded from a stock photography distributor's Web site or purchased as a CD-ROM collection.

digital photography

The art and science of producing and manipulating digital photographs -- photographs that are represented as bit maps. Digital photographs can be produced in a number of ways:
  •  Directly with a digital camera
  •  By capturing a frame from a video
  •  By scanning a conventional photograph
Once a photograph is in digital format, you can apply a wide variety of special effects to it with image enhancing software. You can then print the photo out on a normal printer or send it to a developing studio which will print it out on photographic paper.

Although the resolution of digital photos is not nearly as high as photos produced from film, digital photography is ideal when you need instant, low-resolution pictures. It's especially useful for photos that will be displayed on the World Wide Web because Web graphics need to be low resolution anyway so that they can be downloaded quickly.

Short for single lens reflex, it a term associated with cameras and digital cameras. SLR cameras use a mirror between the lens and the film, or image sensor, to provide a focus screen. This means the image you see in the viewfinder (or LCD) will be the same as what appears on film or as your digital image. 

digital camera

A camera that stores images digitally rather than recording them on film. Once a picture has been taken, it can be downloaded to a computer system, and then manipulated with a graphics program and printed. Unlike film photographs, which have an almost infinite resolution, digital photos are limited by the amount of memory in the camera, the optical resolution of the digitizing mechanism, and, finally, by the resolution of the final output device. Even the best digital cameras connected to the best printers cannot produce film-quality photos. However, if the final output device is a laser printer, it doesn't really matter whether you take a real photo and then scan it, or take a digital photo. In both cases, the image must eventually be reduced to the resolution of the printer.

The big advantage of digital cameras is that making photos is both inexpensive and fast because there is no film processing. Interestingly, one of the biggest boosters of digital photography is Kodak, the largest producer of film. Kodak developed the Kodak PhotoCD format, which has become the de facto standard for storing digital photographs.

Most digital cameras use CCDs to capture images, though some of the newer less expensive cameras use CMOS chips instead.

bullet camera

A type of video camera often used in surveillance systems, named because of its shape and size. Bullet cameras are small (2 to 2.5 inches long) and are limited to a fixed focal length lens. While bullet cameras are good for small spaces, the images may have slightly cut-off corners because the camera shape and design can interfere with the actions of the of the camera lens and filter. Bullet cameras are also called lipstick cameras.

virtual camera

In 3D animation, a virtual camera is a function of the animation software that works and behaves in the same way a camera or digital camera would in real-world situations. In the software, the virtual camera is made up from mathematical calculations that determine how the object will be rendered based on the location and angle of the virtual camera in the software program. As with a real camera, when working with a virtual camera in 3D animation programs, you can use functions like pan, zoom, or change focus and focal points.

On a digital camera iris is an adjustable aperture used to control the amount of light coming through the lens. The more the iris is opened, the more light it lets in and the brighter the scene will be. Camcorders may also have an iris that works in the the same way as one on a digital camera. However, as you adjust the iris you see the brightness change in the viewfinder.

web development

Web site
A site (location) on the World Wide Web. Each Web site contains a home page, which is the first document users see when they enter the site. The site might also contain additional documents and files. Each site is owned and managed by an individual, company or organization. 

mirror site

A Web site that is a replica of an already existing site, used to reduce network traffic (hits on a server) or improve the availability of the original site. Mirror sites are useful when the original site generates too much traffic for a single server to support.

Mirror sites also increase the speed with which files or Web sites can be accessed: users can download files more quickly from a server that is geographically closer to them. For example, if a busy New York-based Web site sets up a mirror site in England, users in Europe can access the mirror site faster than the original site in New York.

Sites such as Netscape that offer copies or updates of popular software often set up mirror sites to handle the large demand that a single site may not be able to handle.

ghost site
A Web site that remains live but is no longer updated or maintained or only done so very infrequently. Unlike a site that is no longer available and results in a 404 error message when the user tries to access it, ghost sites can be accessed even though they have not been updated. Web sites typically strive for relevant information that is timely and current. However, there are some sites in which the content will never or rarely change, so there is no need to update the site. For example, a Web site that contains only the full text of the Declaration of Independence does not need to be updated as that data is never going to change.

Web site Filter

A setting commonly found on broadband router firmware. The Web Filter option allows you to set up a list of allowed Web sites that can be used by multiple users, and any Web site not listed here will be blocked.

virtual Web site

A Web site hosted on a server that shares resources with other Web sites, as opposed to a single machine dedicated to processing HTTP requests for a single Web site. Web sites on the same server will share common resources. Also called shared Web hosting.

cold site
A disaster recovery facility that provides only the physical space for recovery operations while the organization using the space provides its own hardware and software systems.

social networking site
Abbreviated as SNS a social networking site is the phrase used to describe any Web site that enables users to create public profiles within that Web site and form relationships with other users of the same Web site who access their profile. Social networking sites can be used to describe community-based Web sites, online discussions forums, chatrooms and other social spaces online.

Vertical Industry Portal is a portal Web site that provides information and resources for a particular industry. Vortals are the Internet's way of catering to consumers' focused-environment preferences.

Vortals typically provide news, research and statistics, discussions, newsletters, online tools, and many other services that educate users about a specific industry.

As the Web becomes a standard tool for business, vortals will join and maybe replace general portal sites like AOL and Yahoo! as common gateways to the Internet.

affiliate program

An automated marketing program where a Web advertiser or merchant recruits webmasters to place the merchant's banner ads or buttons on their own Web site. Webmasters will receive a referral fee or commission from sales when the customer has clicked the affiliate link to get to the merchant's Web site Web site to perform the desired action, usually make a purchase or fill out a contact form. The most common types of affiliate programs include pay-per-click, pay-per-lead, and pay-per-sale.